Increasing the Potential of Cultivated Fisheries in the Country

  • The maritime and fisheries sector continues to improve to become a sector that contributes large economic value to Indonesia. Currently, development is focused on the aquaculture subsector which is believed to replace the role of capture fisheries in the future
  • Aquaculture continues to make various efforts so that the tasks assigned to this subsector can run well. One of the efforts is to build and develop a modeling program for ponds
  • Through modeling, it is hoped that aquaculture production will not only pursue quantity. However, at the same time, it is hoped that we can pursue environmental quality and sustainability so that it can remain clean and sustainable
  • The focus that will be carried out in 2024 is to increase production of five leading export commodities, namely shrimp, lobster, crab, salted tilapia and seaweed. This increase in production was carried out through an area-based cultivation modeling development strategy in a number of regions

Indonesia is still working hard to align itself with developed countries that have successfully developed aquaculture in a modern, independent and sustainable manner. Currently, various efforts continue to be made to realize this target.

In order to pursue equality with developed countries, the Indonesian government is focused on increasing the production of superior export commodities in the aquaculture subsector. Including, by ensuring the availability of fish food for the needs of fisheries cultivation activities.

Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Sakti Wahyu Trenggono did not deny that Indonesia is currently still unable to match the capabilities of developed countries in developing aquaculture. The reason is because Indonesia has not been able to implement production standards as good as those there.

Another thing that Indonesia has not been able to achieve is because developed countries have implemented very strict standards for fisheries cultivation activities. Then, they were also able to map what fisheries commodities could be produced through cultivation.

“What are good cultivation standards? What kind of commodities are cultivated, they are that careful. "We're not there yet," he explained recently in Jakarta.

Improving production quality is very important, because the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries ( KKP ) in 2024 is pursuing a focus on aquaculture production of up to 24.85 million tons. This target will be achieved through fish and seaweed cultivation.

He said that the focus in 2024 would be to increase production of five leading export commodities, namely shrimp, lobster, crab, salted tilapia and seaweed. This increase in production was carried out through an area-based cultivation modeling development strategy in a number of regions.

It is a model for modern, sustainable cultivation in Indonesia," he added

To pursue such targets, the KKP is building synergies with local governments, fisheries cultivation associations and universities with a focus on building modern aquaculture based on blue economy principles.

It is believed that such a method will not only be able to encourage a rapid and significant increase in aquaculture production, but can also ensure that the production process will not threaten the sustainability of the surrounding ecosystem.

By running modeling, the production process can be carried out using a touch of technology and science, so that the harvest can produce optimal quantities. Area-based shrimp production carried out in Kebumen, Central Java, for example, can produce 40 tons per hectare per cycle.

"Most of our cultivation methods are traditional, that's why we make models, for example in Kebumen," he said .

However, even though Kebumen is proof that Indonesia can develop quality, quality and sustainable aquaculture, in reality developed countries are even better at developing it.

Trenggono himself admitted this. Countries that have advanced in developing fisheries cultivation can now implement renewable cultivation, or third water technology . Such technology is the result of synergy between industry and research.

Throughout 2023, the KKP has built three area-based cultivation models, namely in Kebumen for shrimp commodities, in Karawang (West Java) for saline tilapia, and in Wakatobi (Southeast Sulawesi) for seaweed.

Apart from modeling, the development of aquaculture is also carried out by ensuring the availability of fish food on the market. This effort is made by providing reserve raw materials for fish feed, so that we can escape dependence on fishmeal imported through imports.

According to him, the KKP chose to collaborate with universities or other countries to achieve feed independence. He believes that cooperation can produce solutions that can serve as a guide for selecting reserve raw materials for making fish food.

"We are continuing to encourage collaboration with universities to conduct research. "Approximately, the substitute for feed that comes from fish meal can be replaced with plants," he explained.

Cultivation Modeling

Director General of Aquaculture at the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Tb Haeru Rahayu, said that the production of the five commodities which will be increased in 2024 is an acceleration effort carried out by the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries to develop sustainable aquaculture in Indonesia.

The strategy so that production of the five leading export commodities can increase throughout this year is to carry out modeling development. The modeling cultivation that has produced production is in Kebumen and will be continued in East Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT).

The modeling development is promised to prioritize the principles of environmental sustainability and prioritize the absorption of local workers. The modeling and shrimp pond revitalization program is expected to increase Indonesia's shrimp export performance to USD 2.1 billion in 2024.

Apart from East Sumba, preparations for the development of fisheries cultivation modeling are also currently being carried out in Southeast Maluku (Maluku) and Rote Ndao (NTT). If all plans go smoothly, seaweed exports are targeted to reach USD 568 million by 2024.

"Apart from that, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries is also preparing a modeling program for saline tilapia cultivation," he said.

This program is implemented through the revitalization of shrimp ponds on the North Coast of Java which have been unused for a long time. Then, there is also a program to transfer cultivation from lakes ( lake based ) to land ( land based ). This modeling is expected to increase tilapia exports to USD77 million this year.

Apart from saline tilapia, specifically, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries will also prepare a cultivation modeling program for crabs. Like saline tilapia, modeling is also expected to improve the export performance of this commodity so that it can record an export value of USD476 million in 2024.

Then, there is also a lobster cultivation modeling program, which is part of efforts to strengthen the production performance of this commodity. In order to carry out this plan, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries is collaborating with countries that have developed lobster cultivation, and it is hoped that they can invest in Indonesia.

"In this way, it is hoped that there will be an increase in Indonesian lobster exports to USD 25 million in 2024," he explained.Role Switching

Haeru then quoted data from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2023 which stated that the world's population experiencing food shortages increased from 7.9 percent in 2019 to 9.2 percent in 2022.

It is believed that this condition will continue to increase in the coming years and must be anticipated now. If not, it is considered very dangerous because global demand for fish will continue to increase every year and reach a peak of up to 70 percent in 2050.

"More of this demand will be met by aquaculture production," he explained.

In 2028, the value of capture fisheries production is estimated to only reach USD 80 trillion worldwide. Meanwhile, the value of aquaculture production in the same year skyrocketed to reach USD175 trillion worldwide.

Population growth, accompanied by an increase in protein needs, is a challenge that the world must face in 2050. Apart from that, the challenges of decreasing capture fisheries production are offset by increasing aquaculture production.

Specifically regarding modeling in East Sumba, Haeru said that construction will start from this year until 2027, with a budget of up to USD 500 million or the equivalent of IDR 7.5 trillion. The shrimp pond modeling was built by implementing Good Aquaculture Practices from upstream to downstream in one management.

Where, every process carried out will apply the principle of eco-efficiency and prioritize the preservation of natural resources, control the impact of environmental damage, and involve local communities as the main actors in economic growth.

In the future, East Sumba is expected to generate economic value of IDR 3.4 trillion per year, by being able to absorb a local workforce of around 4,370 people. This means that the East Sumba modeling is expected to produce a multiplier effect for the surrounding community.

"Of course it is hoped that it can contribute to national economic development," he said.

Meanwhile, the East Sumba modeling will have three zones, namely the upstream zone ( hatchery and feed factory); onfarm zone ( intake channel , main reservoir, cluster reservoir, maintenance plot, outlet channel, cluster wastewater management installation/IPAL, and vegetation); and downstream zones ( cold storage , ice factory, and styrofoam factory).

The East Sumba modeling development was carried out using 2,085 hectares of barren land in Palakahembi Village, Pandawai District, East Sumba Regency. The condition of the land is empty, open and rocky, and not utilized. The intake location is in open water and there is no mangrove vegetation.

Meanwhile, for saline tilapia modeling, the KKP will carry it out on an area of ​​80 ha in the Aquaculture Production Business Service Center (BLUPPB) area of ​​Karawang, West Java. The development was carried out on former shrimp pond land which was no longer productive.

This development is part of the KKP's efforts to utilize pond locations that have been inactive for a long time, one of which is due to a decline in production quality. The choice of salted tilapia was due to the consideration that this fish has high economic value and is estimated to reach up to USD 13 billion globally in 203.

Modeling of saline tilapia will be divided into four pond areas, namely blocks A, B, C, and D. Then, apart from the production pond, there are other facilities such as IPAL, inlet outlet , reservoir, and laboratory. Production activities will also use the latest technology, one of which is the use of automatic feed machines.

The modeling productivity of Karawang saline tilapia cultivation is estimated to reach 7,020 tons per cycle, with the weight of the fish when harvested reaching 1 kilogram per fish with a production period of 8-9 months. It is hoped that this success will revive inactive ponds throughout Indonesia.

At least, it is estimated that there are inactive ponds with a total area of ​​78,000 ha. Most of them are thought to be in the North Coast (Pantura) region of Java. For this reason, success in Karawang could be a new beginning for inactive ponds.

Ecosystem Approach

Previously, Destructive Fishing Watch (DFW) Indonesia stated that Indonesia had challenges in developing the aquaculture subsector. One of them is how to maintain coastal areas as production centers and also conservation centers.

DFW Indonesia National Coordinator Moh Abdi Suhufan said that the biggest challenge in aquaculture is how to develop aquaculture techniques using an ecosystem approach.

This technique is really needed, because aquaculture activities trigger pollution and also the conversion of mangrove land into ponds in coastal areas. So far, aquaculture activities have been one of the highest contributors to aquaculture production.

"This often leads to conflict and protests from coastal communities," he said.

He assessed that the government has recognized the need for sustainable and environmentally friendly aquaculture production. This is demonstrated by establishing environmentally friendly and sustainable activities as the main focus, as is already happening in many countries.

This commitment was then reinforced through the development of cultivation using an ecosystem approach. KKP has issued Regulation of the Director General of Aquaculture (Perdirjen PB) Number 154 of 2019 concerning Technical Instructions for Aquaculture with an Ecosystem Approach (ADPE).

Abdi said that the regulation contains technical guidelines on how to manage aquaculture activities, including aquaculture practices. The regulation also emphasizes the importance of carrying out aquaculture while maintaining the balance of the ecosystem and the sustainability of fishery resources.

According to him, one of the main aspects of ADPE is a sustainable approach. The document provides guidance on wise land use, efficient water management, and the use of environmentally friendly feed.

“The need for harmony between human activities and the environment cannot be ignored. "In an effort to create this harmony, the presence of ADPE provides substantial benefits," he said. 

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